Gut bacteria, inflammation, changes linked to Type 1 diabetes: Study
London, Jan 20: People with Type 1 diabetes show a change in gut bacteria and inflammation in their small intestine that are not visible in people without the autoimmune condition, a study has found.
These differences may contribute to the development of Type 1 diabetes — a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, the study said.
“Our findings indicate the individuals with Type 1 diabetes have an inflammatory signature and microbiome that differ from what we see in people who do not have diabetes or even in those with other autoimmune conditions such as celiac disease,” said Lorenzo Piemonti from San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, Italy.
In addition, individuals with Type 1 diabetes also showed more signs of inflammation of the gut’s mucous membrane linked to 10 specific genes than the individuals who had celiac disease — another autoimmune condition, which causes damage to the small intestine when gluten — a wheat protein — is consumed.
Participants with Type 1 diabetes also displayed a distinct combination of gut bacteria that was different from both groups — people who are healthy and with celiac disease.
“We don’t know if Type 1 diabetes’ signature effect on the gut is caused by or the result of the body’s own attacks on the pancreas,” Piemonti said.
However, “by exploring this, we may be able to find new ways to treat the disease by targeting the unique gastrointestinal characteristics of individuals with Type 1 diabetes”, he added.
For the study, the team examined the microbiome of 54 individuals who underwent endoscopies and biopsies of the first part of the small intestine, known as the duodenum, at San Raffaele Hospital between 2009 and 2015.
The study was published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.